When it comes to Mars rover missions, eyes tend to be firmly on NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity vehicle and the upcoming Mars 2020 rover.
However, if all goes according to plan, come 2021, Curosity and Mars 2020 will have a smaller European cousin trundling around Mars with them, thanks to the arrival of ExoMars rover Rosalind Franklin. While the rover isn’t due to be launched for just over 12 months, the European Space Agency (ESA) take two further steps towards the mission in June 2019.
At the start of the month, ESA inaugurated the Rover Operations Control Centre (ROCC) in Turin, Italy. Designed to be the hub that orchestrates all operational elements supporting Rosalind Franklin once it has been delivered to the surface of Mars by its Russian-built landing platform, ROCC is one of the most advanced mission operations centres in the world.
This is the crucial place on Earth from where we will listen to the rover’s instruments, see what she sees and send commands to direct the search for evidence of life on and under the surface.
– Jan Wörner, ESA’s Director General
As well as providing communications with the rover, data processing, and science and engineering support, the ROCC boasts one of the largest “Mars Yard” sandboxes currently available. Filled with 140 tonnes of Martian analogue soil, it offer a range of simulated terrains similar to those the rover might encounter within its proposed landing site. Such simulation capabilities will allow Earth-based teams to carry out a wide range of activities using the rover’s Earth-bound twin before committing to particular courses of action, or to help assist the rover should it get into difficulties on Mars.
Use of such environments is not new; NASA uses an assortment of indoor and outdoor Mars Yards to help support their static and rover surface operations on Mars. However, the ROCC Mars Yard is somewhat unique in its capabilities.
For example, as ExoMars has a drilling system designed to reach up to 2 metres (6 ft) below the Martian surface, the ROCC Mars Yard includes a “well” that allows rover operators to exercise the full sequence of collecting Martian samples from well below the Martian surface. This well can be filled with different types / densities of material, so if the Rosalind Franklin gets into difficulties in operating its drill, engineers can attempt to replicate the exact conditions and work out how best to resolve problems.
And while it is not part of the main Mars Yard, ROCC rover operations will be assisted by a second simulation centre in Zurich, Switzerland. This 64-metre square platform can be filled with 20 tonnes of simulated Martian surface materials and inclined up to 30-degrees. Engineers can then use another rover analogue to see how the rover might – or might not – be able to negotiate slopes.
For example, what might happen if the Rosalind Franklin tries to ascend / descend a slope covered in loose material? What are the risks of soil slippage that might result in a loss of the rover’s ability to steer itself? What are the risks of the surface material shifting sufficiently enough that the rover might topple over? What’s the best way to tackle the incline? The test rig in Zurich is intended to answer questions like these ahead of committing the Mars rover to a course of action. In fact, it has already played a crucial role in helping to develop the rover’s unique wheels.
Both the Mars Yard and the Zurich facility will be used throughout the rover’s surface mission on Mars, right from the initial deployment of the rover from its Russian landing platform (called Kazachok, meaning “little Cossack”).
With the Mars yard next to mission control, operators can gain experience working with autonomous navigation and see the whole picture when it comes to operating a rover on Mars. Besides training and operations, this fit-for-purpose centre is ideal for trouble shooting.
– Luc Joudrier, ExoMars Rover Operations Manager
June will see the new centre commence a series of full-scale simulations designed to help staff familiarise themselves the centre’s capabilities before commencing full-scale rehearsals for the rover’s arrival on Mars in March 2021.
Meanwhile, in the UK – which carries responsibility for assembling the rover – Rosalind Franklin is coming together. The drill and a key set of scientific instruments—the Analytical Laboratory Drawer—have both been declared fit for Mars and integrated into the rover’s body. Next up is the rover’s eyes – the panoramic camera systems. Once integration in the UK has been completed, the rover will be transported to Toulouse, France, where it will be put through a range of tests to simulate its time in space en route to Mars and the conditions its systems will be exposed to on the surface of Mars.
The targeted landing site for Rosalind Franklin is Oxia Planum, a region that preserves a rich record of geological history from the planet’s wetter past. With an elevation more than 3000 m below the Martian mean, it contains one of the largest exposures of clay-bearing rocks that are around 3.9 billion years old. The site sits in an area of valley systems with the exposed rocks exhibiting different compositions, indicating a variety of deposition and wetting environments, marking it as an ideal candidate for the rover to achieve its mission goals.