Space Sunday: total eclipse and exoplanet update

2016 total eclipse Credit: NASA Exploratorium webcast

On Monday, August 21st, the continental United States will experience its first total eclipse of the sun for 38 years (the last total eclipse visible from the USA having occurred in 1979). Providing the weather holds good along the path of the eclipse, an estimated 220 million people will be able to see the event – providing they take the proper precautions.

An eclipse is a periodic event, occurring when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth and either fully or partially occults (blocks) the Sun’s light. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth, in an alignment referred to as syzygy. There are actually four types of eclipse:

  • Partial – this occurs when the Sun and Moon are not exactly in line with the Earth, and so the Moon only partially obscures the Sun. Partial eclipses are virtually unnoticeable in terms of the sun’s brightness, as it takes well over 90% coverage to notice any darkening at all.
  • Annular – occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line with the Earth, but because of the variations in the Earth’s distance from the Sun, and the variations in the Moon’s distance from the Earth, the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. Hence the Sun appears as a very bright ring, or annulus, surrounding the dark disk of the Moon.
  • Total – occurs when the dark silhouette of the Moon completely obscures the intensely bright light of the Sun, allowing the much fainter solar corona to be visible. The complete coverage of the Sun’s disk by that of the moon – referred to as totality – occurs at its best only in a narrow track on the surface of Earth.
  • Hybrid (also called annular/total eclipse) – this shifts between a total and annular eclipse. At certain points on the surface of Earth, it appears as a total eclipse, whereas at other points it appears as annular. Hybrid eclipses are comparatively rare.

The last total eclipse took place in March 2016, and was visible from South/East Asia, North/West Australia, the Pacific and Indian oceans. The 2017 event will be visible in partial forms across every continent except Antarctica and Australia. However, the path of totality will only be visible across the continental United States.

Although totality slices through the U.S., partial phases of the eclipse touch on every continent except Antarctica and Australia. Credit: Michael Zeiler / The Great American Eclipse – click for full size

The path of totality will run from Oregon to South Carolina, as will be around 113 kilometres (70 miles) wide, offering people along it an unrivalled opportunity to view the eclipse  – weather permitting -, providing the right precautions are taken.

The most important aspect of viewing an eclipse “live” is never look directly at the Sun, even during the period of totality; you should at least use a solar filter or viewer. However, if you don’t have one or the other or any specialised kit, the best way to see the eclipse in the flesh is via pinhole projection. For those who are unable to see the eclipse first-hand, there are a wide variety of ways to watch the event on television or the Internet, including:

  • NASA Total Eclipse live stream is providing options to watch through NASA Edge, NASA TV, Ustream, YouTube and more. NASA’s Facebook page. These will show images of the eclipse, from 11 spacecraft, three aircraft and from more than 50 high-altitude balloons, and the astronauts on the International Space Station.
  • Slooh, the on-line community observatory, will run a webcast starting at 12:oo noon EDT (1600 GMT), as a part of a 3-day celebration of the eclipse.
  • The Virtual Telescope Project is hosting a free online observing session with views of the total solar eclipse beginning at 13:00 EDT (17:00 GMT).
  • The Eclipse Ballooning Project will be broadcasting live views of the eclipse from the edge of space via more than 57 cameras sent up on weather balloons.
  • CNN and Volvo will be providing a 360-degree view of the eclipse with 4K resolution from different locations along the eclipse path. The stream will also be viewable in virtual reality, which people can navigate by moving a phone or virtual reality headset. The live stream begins at 12:03 p.m. EDT (16:03 GMT).
  • ABC will air a two-hour special on the eclipse starting at 13:00 EDT (17:00 GMT). The broadcast will also be available on Facebook Live and YouTube

There are a number of terms common to eclipses which are worth mentioning for those who wish to follow the event, but are unfamiliar with the terminology. These include:

Eclipse Types (Moon and Sun not to scale). Credit: Cmglee
  • The umbra, within which the object in this case, the Moon) completely covers the light source (in this case, the Sun’s photosphere).
  • The antumbra, extending beyond the tip of the umbra, within which the object is completely in front of the light source but too small to completely cover it.
  • The penumbra, within which the object is only partially in front of the light source.
  • Photosphere, the shiny layer of gas you see when you look at the sun.
  • Chromosphere, a reddish gaseous layer immediately above the photosphere of the sun that will peak out during the eclipse.
  • Corona, the light streams that surround the sun.
  • First contact, the time when an eclipse starts.
  • Second contact, the time when the total eclipse starts.
  • Third contact, the time when the total eclipse ends.
  • Fourth contact, the time at which the eclipse ends.
  • Bailey’s beads, the shimmering of bright specks seen immediately before the moon is about to block the sun.
  • Diamond ring, the last bit of sunlight you see right before totality. It looks like one bright spot (the diamond) and the corona (the ring).

A total eclipse occurs when the observer is within the umbra (they are standing in the shadow cast by the Moon); an annular eclipse when the observer is within the antumbra, and a partial eclipse when the observer is within the penumbra.

As well as the passage of the Moon between the Earth and Sun, there are a number of Earthly effects to look for if you are in the path of totality, such as a the 360-degree sunset. This may also be accompanied by an “eclipse wind” as temperatures suddenly drop. And, of course, there is the rousing of nocturnal animals, fooled by the darkness, followed by a false dawn as the Moon moves away from between the Earth and the Sun, and an accompanying dawn chorus.

The period of totality lasts only a few minutes but offers a superb opportunity for observing the Sun and its corona – hence why NASA is using a chain of three aircraft to “chase” the eclipse as the Moon’s shadows travels at an average speed of 3,683 km/h (2,288 mph) west-to-east, enabling them to carry out an extended study of the corona.

The Moon’s shadow on Earth, as seen from the International Space Station on March 29th, 2006 as it passes over southern Turkey, Northern Cyprus and the Mediterranean Sea. Credit: NASA

As a point of historical interest, August 21st marks the 103rd anniversary of the 1914 total eclipse, which was seen from Scandinavia through to Turkey, the middle east and India. It was the subject of a number of expeditions being sent eastwards to the Baltic and Ukraine by Britain and other European nations with the intention of studying it – only for the conflagration of the First World War to erupt.

The war foiled attempts by a British expedition which intended to use the eclipse as a means to measure relativity; however, it did give rise to another mystery: whether or not a film of the eclipse apparently made in Sweden in 1914 is the real deal or not. If it is, it might be the oldest surviving footage of an eclipse.

If you are on the path of totality, and plan to view the eclipse, do please take the proper precautions and I hope the weather cooperates with you. I’ll be following things on-line.

Continue reading “Space Sunday: total eclipse and exoplanet update”

Sansar and VR / AR in the press

AppliedVR: VR support for hospital patients. Credit: AppliedVR (see below)

This month has seen some interesting press pieces popping up concerning VR and Sansar since the opening of the Creator Beta. However, three in particular have so far caught my eye as they appeared, as they offer interesting perspectives and discussion points both on the Lab’s new platform and on VR and AR as a whole.

The first – and most recent, is Barely into Beta, Sansar is making social VR look good, by Alice Bonasio, which appeared in The Next Web on August 18th. The title caused some to question Sansar’s social capabilities, but the article itself was more about Sansar’s overall status and development, rather than zeroing directly into the medium of “social VR” per se. In this respect, it opens by clearly underlining the platform is still in its early days, and there is still much to be done, using a quote from Peter Gray, the Lab’s Director of Global Communications, to do so:

We wanted to make Sansar available to everyone as early as possible, and there are still a lot of features and capabilities that we’re excited to add to the platform soon, as well as many improvements to the current featureset.

Alice Bonasio: looking at Sansar

From here, Ms Bonasio makes the point that despite the lack of features and capabilities which will be needed to fulfil on its promise of being a social hub, it already looks good and offers a lot to see, much of which points to the platform’s potential.

The piece also delves into some of the technical and economic factors which set Sansar apart: such as Linden Lab’s partnerships with IKinema and Speech Graphics. The former is key to the Sansar avatars utilising Inverse Kinematics in an advanced way, and which are and will play a key role in the Sansar avatar’s development. The latter is key to synchronising facial animations automatically to match speech patterns, a capability key to many of the social interactions Linden Lab hope will be occurring within Sansar.

The article also touches on some of the key differences between Sansar and Second Life, the ability Linden Lab has to take fourteen years of running a virtual world to help shape the philosophy and approach it takes with Sansar. Passing – but important – mention is made of the Lab’s ability to self-finance Sansar; given the topsy-turvy situation with Altspace VR (which may have been saved from having to close), this is an important fact to keep in mind.

As noted above, the piece has received some feedback questioning the “social” element of Sansar at it stands at present, which given the broader thrust of the article might be considered a little out-of-context. However, it is fair to say that right now Sansar does currently lack elements which could be regarded as essential to supporting larger-scale social activities. Similarly, while social interactions are possible – as demonstrated through the daily meet-ups held “in-worlds” – it’s also fair to say these can be confusing and limiting for some. For example, undisciplined voice chat can mean that that multiple conversations in a single locale can overlay one another and become confusing to those not used to voice chat.

Hopefully these issues will be addressed, along with the provision of other social elements, and I’ll doubtless have more to say on them myself in the future 🙂 . In the meantime, this article provides a good summation of Sansar for the curious / those wishing to catch-up on things.

Samantha Cole examines VR’s role in conference calls

Over at The Fast Company, Samantha Cole uses Sansar to ask Will Virtual Reality Solve Your Conference Call Nightmares?

I’ll say up-front that I’m one of the non-believers that VR will become ubiquitous for business-style conference calls for a number of reasons, and its fair to say that Samantha Cole does a balanced job of presenting both sides of the argument – whilst also offering side pointers to those areas where VR is already showing benefits (and which I’d suggest Sansar could leverage).

Much has been made of VR’s abilities to add body language, hand movements, eye movement and contact – all vital elements in adding subliminal feedback / context to our day-to-day, face-to-face interactions to one another – to give more depth and meaning to tele- and video-style conferencing. In doing so, the likes of the telephone and “traditional” means of this type of conferencing have been somewhat “demonised”. Emphasis is laid on things like network latency, or the extra mental effort involved in reading into people’s words when you can only hear their voice or see their head / shoulders, as “limiting” such interactions.

But the truth is, we’ve been using the telephone for decades as a business tool. It’s fast and convenient, and as adults, we’re all pretty adept on picking-up on vocal nuances. We’re also, in a business context, far more prepared to communicate directly with colleagues; if there is something worrying / irksome within a work environment / business project, most of us are pretty willing to make thought known, be they over the ‘phone, face-to-face or via e-mail. So even with the faster, lighter, better VR technology we’re promised will be coming down the pipe, is it really any kind of “killer app” for business conferencing?

Eric Boyd, a professor of marketing at James Madison University points to emerging trends within the workplace as a whole being more a deciding factor here. Many companies have experimented with remote / home working over the past 2 or so decades, and the pendulum tends to swing back and forth. Right now, as the article points out, one of the first to enter the arena of remote working, IBM, is currently backing away from it. Thus, if working practices remain centralised, it’s hard to see VR overturning technologies already in place and supported by existing corporate infrastructure, no matter what the perceptions of their “limitations”. But for those organisations continuing to embrace remote working, VR could become a useful meeting tool.

Certainly there would seem to be far better uses VR could be put towards within a business environment: prototyping, training, simulations, and so on, which seem far more likely to drive its adoption by business and industry far more than the humble conference call. In this, Cole’s pointing to VR’s potential in training and simulation and in architecture is very salient; these are very much markets well suited to VR / AR / MR – perhaps more so that conference calls.

Amitt Mahajan – taking the temperature of the VR / AR market

Writing for Xconomy, Bernadette Tansey sits down with Amitt Mahajan, a Managing Partner at Presence Capital to take the temperature at VR / AR at mid-year., which also touches on the potential for both as business platforms / tools.

While Sansar is only mentioned in passing (together with the downs and ups of AltspaceVR), the article is interesting as it encompasses the viewpoint of a company investing in VR and AR start-ups with funding in the US $100,000-500,000 range – which is small when compared to the likes of the big players, but has allowed the company to bask some significant start-ups, including STRIVR, who are in the VR training a simulation field mentioned above.

The article opens which a rapid-fire overview of the VR / AR market – including its niche status at present, which could be said to be largely down to the limitations of the current hardware (or lack thereof in AR’s case, although that is beginning to change) rather than anything else. However, the meat of the piece is where Mahajan sees the technologies going over the next several years.

What’s interesting here is that within Presence Capital, they are moving away from consumer-focused VR endeavours and more towards business and business-to-business (B2B) / enterprise VR applications as well as for AR; he points to the likes of AppliedVR and their development of an immersive platform to help comfort patients  undergoing painful procedures, and also underlines VR’s application in training.

This year’s swing towards AR is also examined: Google, Apple and Facebook are all looking to develop AR platforms, and the discussion looks at these and at the questions of standards, formats, and enabling technologies. In this, Mahajan points somewhat towards the eventual merger of AR and VR to produce Mixed Reality, indirectly pointing to how AR – augmented reality – could actually become an enabler of VR (something the likes of Qualcomm are working towards with Android and their snapdragon chipset), simply because it will allow both to coexists as tools people can switch between according to needs.

All three article make for interesting reads, presenting a broad range of perspectives not just on Sansar (in the case of Alice Bonasio’s piece) but on VR and AR as whole.

Tales of darkness, super humans and summers past

Seanchai Library, Holly Kai Park

It’s time to kick-off another week of storytelling in Voice by the staff and volunteers at the Seanchai Library. As always, all times SLT, and events are held at the Library’s home at Holly Kai Park, unless otherwise indicated.

Sunday, August 20th 14:00: Beware! – Lovefest 2017

Seanchai Library brings together gifted storytellers from across the grid to present selected adventures from the works of H.P. Lovecraft and the Lovecraftian genre, live in voice at Lovefest 2017.  “The world is indeed comic, but the joke is on mankind.” 

Monday, August 21st 19:00: More Than Human

Gyro Muggins reads Theodore Sturgeon’s genre-bending 1953 novel which brings together three of her earlier works   to weave a story about people with extraordinary abilities which can be combined – “bleshed” (itself a blending of “blend” and “mesh”) to make them even more extraordinary.

Take, for example, Lone, the simpleton who can hear other people’s thoughts and make a man blow his brains out just by looking at him; or Janie, who moves things without touching them. Then there are the teleporting twins, who can travel ten feet or ten miles, and Baby, who invented an anti-gravity engine while still in the cradle, and Gerry, who has everything it takes to run the world except for a conscience.

Six people struggling to find who they are and whether they are meant to help humanity, destroy it, or represent the next step in evolution, the final chapter in the history of the human race. Through them, Theodore Sturgeon explores questions of power and morality, individuality and belonging, with suspense, pathos, and a lyricism rarely seen in science fiction.

Tuesday, August 22nd 19:00: One Summer, America 1927

The summer of 1927 was, for the United States, a signature period of the 20th Century. On May 21st, Charles Lindbergh became the first man to make a non-stop crossing of the Atlantic in an aeroplane when The Spirit of St Louis arrived at Le Bourget airfield, near Paris.

Through that summer, Babe Ruth was setting his record for the number of home runs in baseball, while one of the most infamous murder trials in New York’s history took place: that of  Ruth Snyder and her married lover, Henry Judd Gray. They stood accused – and were eventually found guilty of – garrotting of Snyder’s husband in what was a tabloid sensation case.

Meanwhile, in the south the Mississippi burst its banks, leading to widespread flooding and a huge human disaster. Far to the north, Al Capone continued his reign of criminal terror in Chicago, while on the west coast, history was being made with the filming of the world’s first “talking picture” in the form of Al Jolson’s The Jazz Singer, released in October 1927.

All of this  and more is charted by Bill Bryson, in a book written with his characteristic eye for telling detail, and delicious humour. 1927 was the year America stepped out onto the world stage as the main event, and One Summer transforms it all into narrative non-fiction of the highest order. Join Kayden Oconnell for a trip through history as seen by Bryson.

Wednesday, August 23rd 19:00: Secrets of the Divine Ya-Ya Sisterhood

Caledonia Skytower reads Rebecca Wells’ 2014 tale.

When Siddalee Walker, oldest daughter of Vivi Abbott Walker, Ya-Ya extraordinaire, is interviewed in the New York Times about a hit play she’s directed, her mother gets described as a “tap-dancing child abuser.”

Enraged, Vivi disowns Sidda. Devastated, Sidda begs forgiveness, and postpones her upcoming wedding. All looks bleak until the Ya-Yas step in and convince Vivi to send Sidda a scrapbook of their girlhood mementos, called “Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood.”

As Sidda struggles to analyze her mother, she comes face to face with the tangled beauty of imperfect love, and the fact that forgiveness, more than understanding, is often what the heart longs for.

Also presented in Kitely (hop://

Thursday, August 24th

19:00: Growth of the House of Usher

With Shandon Loring. Also presented in Kitely (hop://

21:00: Seanchai Late Night

Late-night sci-fi and more.

Saturday August 26th: Into the Unknown! – Lovefest 2017

 Seanchai Library & Friends present even more selected adventures from the works of H.P. Lovecraft and the Lovecraftian genre, live in voice from Lovefest 2017. Think you’re safe?

Lovefest 2017: Mr. Lovecraft presides over all events occurring in the coastal town of Kingsport, where Seanchai Library and friends will be presenting dark tales on August 20th and 26th


Please check with the Seanchai Library’s blog for updates and for additions or changes to the week’s schedule.

The featured charity for August and September is Little Kids Rock, transforming lives by restoring, expanding, and innovating music education in schools.