Space Sunday: space stations, sample returns and falling rockets

The ISS: US Congress signals NASA funding through to 2030 now possible. Crew: NASA
The US Congress has approved NASA’s request or funding to extend International Space Station operations through until the end of 2030. However, this does not mean the station’s future is necessarily set in tablets of stone.

The approval came not through NASA’s core budgetary process, but as a result of an additional NASA authorisation bill being appended to the newly passed Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors (CHIPS) Act of 2022, intended to increase semiconductor manufacturing in the United States in the wake of pandemic-induced supply chain shortages.

The authorisation bill included in the act specifically targets NASA to receive funding to support ISS operations, and to further the agency’s lunar ambitions and robot exploration of Mars. In addition, the 2023 Commerce, Justice and Science (CJS) spending bill. currently being drafted in Congress, looks as though it will seek to provide NASA with the US $25.9738 billion it has requested for its 2023 operational budget – albeit it with one or two small strings attached. These include ensuring the asteroid-hunting NEO Surveyor mission launches in 2026 as planned, rather than slipping to 2028; cutting a part of the space technology spending that includes nuclear thermal propulsion work; and adding $50 million to support a new commercial crew provider beyond Space and Boeing to increase program options.

However, while paying the lion’s share towards ISS operations, the US relies heavily on the assistance of its International partners: a further 15 nations (Brazil having withdrawn in 2007), with both the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) providing core modules for the station, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) crucial support systems. While 14 out of the 15 (the majority operating under the auspices of ESA), the same cannot be said for the 15th – Russia, which is also the second largest financial contributor to the station, as well as the largest contributor of pressurised modules.

Russia has long bulked at any attempts to extend ISS operations beyond 2024, and while it appeared that a shorter extension to the station’s life to take it through to 2028, that was thrown into doubt in early 2021, when the Russian space agency, Roscosmos, announced that a module – the Solar Power Module-1 (SPM-1, also referred to as NEM-1) – due for launch in 2024, would be repurposed to serve as the core power module for a new, smaller, all-Russian space station, provisionally called the Russian Orbital Service Station (ROSS).

The Russian Orbital Service Station, as rendered during a recent presentation by Vladimir Solovyov, chief designer at RSC Energia, and the director of Russian involvement in the ISS. To the left and right, with the large four-panel solar arrays are the two core modules for the station. To the left foreground and right background as the additional science modules. Credit: RoscosmosAt the time, it was indicated that work on ROSS would commence in 2024 and conclude around 2029. However, that time line was then pushed back to 2030-2035., possibly signalling Russia would remain fully engaged in ISS operations through until 2030. Then came the Russian invasion of Ukraine, international outrage, condemnation and the rest. This included assorted (and somewhat silly) threats on the part of the then head of Roscosmos, Dmitry Rogozin, which included statements that Russia would depart the ISS in 2024 – and might take parts of it with them…

While Rogozin has now departed Roscosmos for pastures new, his replacement at the agency, his replacement – equal hardliner Yuri Borisov – Has sounded something of a warning that attitudes towards ISS operations have not shifted, telling the TASS news agency that Russia’s engagement in ISS will come to an end “after 2024” – the date to which the committed to support the station.

Exactly what “after 2024” means in practice remains unclear. ISS partners are obligated to give at least 12 months warning of an intention to depart the project – and Russia has never taken that step through to now, and it could be argued that 2030 is as much “after 2024” as 2025.

That said, coming on the heels of Borisov’s comments to TASS, Vladimir Solovyov – who is both the chief designer at RSC Energia, the company responsible for developing space station modules and the director of the Roscosmos department directly responsible for ISS operations – presented the first detailed overview of the proposed ROSS platform, including the fact that the first modules are to be operational by the end of 2028.

ROSS: the SPM-! (NEM-1) core module, originally intended for the ISS is currently being repurposed to provide the new space platform with all its required power management capabilities. Credit: Roscosmos

While not explicitly named by Solovyov, the first of these modules appears to remain the re-purposed SPM-1 / NEM-1, Solovyov indicated would launch in 2026. This will then be followed in 2028 by a Core Crew Module (CCM – this nomenclature will likely change), providing crew living facilities and additional power systems, with the two units operating as a baseline station until two additional science modules can join them in 2030.

This tends to indicate that from 2025, Roscosmos will start pivoting priorities away from ISS and to ROSS; but it does not signal they will be ending all involvement in ISS. Further, and while again not indicated by Solovyov, the fact that the science modules will not be flown until 2030 might be indicative that consideration is being given to perhaps utilising the Nauka module, which only joined the ISS in 2021 and which is capable of its own propulsion, within ROSS.

This might come down to the orbit ROSS eventually placed within. During his presentation Solovyov stated the some of Russia’s frustrations with ISS is that the station operates at an orbital inclination that precludes much of the Earth and space science Russia would like to carry out. As such, a wide range of potential orbits are being considered for ROSS, some of which would exclude any transfer of Nauka from ISS to ROSS.

ROSS: a further view of the Core Crew Module (CCM – left) and the core power module (SPM-1/NEM-1 – right) linked by the multi-port docking hub, which also has an unidentified vehicle docked to it. These elements of the platform are being targeted for operational use starting in 2028. Credit: Roscosmos

As well as the four core modules, Solovyov indicated that the station’s facilities could be expended through the use of a (yet-to-be built) large-scale automated re-supply vehicle that could perform a number of roles from straightforward delivery of supplies and consumables through performing required orbital boosts to offering temporary additional working space when needed. It is additionally possible this re-supply vehicle might be combined with a capsule-like crew vehicle, allowing it to deliver both personnel and supplies to the station, with dedicated crew-only flights to and from ROSS carried out aboard a smaller vehicle intended to replace the veritable Soyuz

Most interestingly, Solovyov  stated ROSS would not necessarily be permanently crewed, but will utilise a high degree of automation for science operations, with crews visiting it to carry out very specific science research and / or to collect data and carrying out maintenance and other work. However, as he also indicated that the station could well form a part of Russia’s ambitions for the Moon and Mars (some of least at which will likely include working with China), the station could become more fully crewed from 2030 onwards.

ESA / NASA Simplify Mars Sample Return Mission

In May I wrote about the proposed ESA / NASA Mars Sample return mission to bring core samples gathered by NASA’s Perseverance rover back to Earth for analysis. At the time of that report, NASA and ESA were responding to calls for the mission to be prioritised and take place earlier than the early-to-mid 2030s. However, the plan being forward back then stuck me as being overly complicated, involved six vehicles and three individual launches; and bless them, NASA and ESA now seem to share that view:  on July 27th, 2022, the two agencies issued an update that reduced the mission to just two launches and changes the overall line-up of vehicles involved, although the fine details have yet to be worked out.

As it was: the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission in March-May 2022: top right is the ESA-built Earth Return Vehicle (ERV); lower right the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) mounted on its lander; in the centre is the ESA-built “fetch” rover (minus its lander) which would transfer samples from where they had been deposited by Perseverance (left) to the MAV. Credit; NASA / ESA

In the March-May plan, Perseverance would have deposited a cache of core sample tubes somewhere in Jezero crater. This cache would then be targeted by two landers – one carrying the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), and the other a small, European-built “fetch” rover. This would collect the sample tubes from the cache and deliver them to the MAV, which it turn would launch from its lander to carry them up to a waiting Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) built by ESA, with the sample tubes transferred to that vehicle for the return to Earth.

Under the new plan, the ERV remains, as does the MAV and its lander. However, the “fetch” rover and its lander have been scrapped. Instead, the MAV will launch to Mars in 2028 and its lander will use telemetry from Perseverance to land in the vicinity of the rover, which will then drive to the MAV and perform the transfer of samples directly.

Exactly how this transfer will be managed is unclear – Perseverance isn’t exactly designed for such a task. So, as a contingency, the lander carrying the MAV will carry will also be equipped with two “Ingenuity class” helicopters. Fitted with wheels and a small grappling arm, as well as flying, these will be capable of scooting around on wheels, collecting sample tubes from the cache rack Perseverance will deposit on the surface of Mars and delivering them to the MAV. Once loaded, the MAV will launch to orbit, rendezvous with the ERV, and the sample pack transferred for its return to Earth.

As it now is: the current Mars Sample Return mission hardware: the ESA-built Earth Return Vehicle (top), with the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) flying up to it from its lander (right), and one of the two “ingenuity-class” helicopters hovering close to the Mars 2020 rover. Credit: NASA / ESA

Overall, the approach is still somewhat complicated, but assuming a methodology can be employed to allow Perseverance to complete the sample transfer to the MAV unaided, it means NASA will have two fresh helicopters available to support the rover in its further explorations in and around Jezero Crater. And even if the helicopters do have to be used for sample retrieval, by combining them with the MAV and its lander, an entire additional launch – and the development of a complex small-scale “fetch” rover – can be avoided, both reducing the overall cost of the mission and reducing the potential for long-term delay which might occur with the development of an entirely new class of rover.

Which is not to say the target 2027 launch date for the ERV isn’t itself challenging; three years to develop and test a space vehicle is an extremely short time-frame; as such it would seem likely this mission will slip back into the early 2030s.

Continue reading “Space Sunday: space stations, sample returns and falling rockets”

A corner of Provence in Second Life

Tourtour de Prouvenco, July 2022 – click any image for full size

Occupying one half of a Full private region leveraging the additional Land Capacity bonus, sits Tourtour de Prouvenco, a setting designed by Annisss Moreau (annisss) that is offered for public enjoyment.

Tourtour is a small French Provencal village where you can relax by the sea and listen to the best DJs of the second life at the Blue Note ‘Club evenementiels Djs LIVE’.

– from Tourtour de Prouvenco’s About Land description

This is a setting very much of two parts separated by a deep inlet that cuts across the parcel, a wide bridge close to its mouth providing the sole direct link between the two elements, helping them to flow together. The parcel itself offers an east-west orientation, the landing point sitting upon a small square.

Tourtour de Prouvenco, July 2022

The home of a small open market, this square is book-ended on its west side by the bridge mentioned above, and a gatehouse accessing what might be considered the older part of the town. The square and the bridge offer good views of the almost rectangular inlet as it forms a natural shelter / harbour. Looking at the basin of the inlet, it is not hard to picture it as once having been a port of call for trading ships plying the coastal regions under the power of wind and canvas. Today, the stone wharf has been extended by wooden moorings that offer places of rest for a mix of small fishing boats and the shark-like forms of power boats and speedboats.

The way down to the boats is presented on the far side of the bridge from the landing point, steps descending down from road level, the buildings behind them set well back from the drop to the water to provide a broad waterfront area, home to stores, stalls, cafés, kids at play and a sandy pétanque court awaiting older players.

Tourtour de Prouvenco, July 2022
The buildings here are suggesting of having been built in the 18th or 19th centuries, although they are centred on a much older structure, almost a ruin, lacking a roof, some walls broken and the floors they once supported collapsed. Accessed via an arch, this has in fact been cleared out and partially renovated to become the Blue Note referenced in the About Land description, and home to DJ events.

A further arched passageway facing the bridge offers the way between the tall houses and buildings, allowing visitors to reach more features with the setting. These include the western beach, overlooked by the Chocolat, where visitors can enter into a (kilo-gaining!) romance with all forms of chocolate and dessert. This side of the town offers the local cinema, and a marvellous courtyard comprising façades of shuttered houses.

To the east, the older element of the setting is far more rural in nature, and includes some almost Tuscan touches thanks to some of the selected architecture. sitting on the top of rocky cliffs that fall to a further beach on their north side, and cut through by a deep gorge, this is much the larger of the two parts of the setting, and offers a huge amount to take in.

Tourtour de Prouvenco, July 2022

The houses and stores here are furnished, giving a rich sense of homeliness, whilst the town can be explored by following various paths through it. The most obvious of these is the rutted lane that runs between the Tuscan-like buildings to cross a natural rock pass over the waters of the gorge as it empties into the sea. In the far side, this road curls back on itself to follow the southern lip of the gorge, passing below the local art gallery.

Set within a grand building reached via a couple of separate footpaths leading up to it – both of which should be explored in order to fully appreciate the region – the gallery dominates the setting in terms of its elevation, and does tend to draw the attention. However, and while a visit is recommended, do take the opportunity to explore around and behind the houses to discover all that the setting has on offer.

Tourtour de Prouvenco, July 2022

And also, when passing under the arch from the landing point square, be sure to keep an eye out for the teleport posters that will take you up to a couple of locations in the sky that I’ll allow you to discover for yourselves!

Charming, well designed and laid out with plenty of opportunities for photography Tourtour de Prouvenco is well worth spending time visiting.

Tourtour de Prouvenco, July 2022

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Dinosaurs and Coconuts in Second Life

Cica Ghost: Dinosaurs and Coconuts, July 2022

Cica Ghost carries us through the end of July and into August with her latest installation, which opened on Friday July 29th, 2022, bringing us a touch of Jurassic Park meets The Flintstones in another easy-on-the-eyes-and-brain piece.

Dinosaurs and Coconuts comes with a quote from the Dalai Lama – Once a year, go somewhere you have never been before, and this is a setting that surely offers us the opportunity to do just that.

Like Jurassic Park, this is an installation that presents avatar the opportunity to witness the great reptiles of an prehistoric era as they go about their business. Scattered across the landscape visitors might find armoured dinosaurs mind of those common to the Cretaceous period (Taohelong, Dyoplosaurus, Struthiosaurus, et al); sauropod-like dinosaurs that bring to mind those of the Jurassic the Late Cretaceous periods (such as Brachiosaurus, Apatosaurus and the truly enormous titanosaurians); and two-legged carnivores suggestive of the infamous velociraptor genus.

Cica Ghost: Dinosaurs and Coconuts, July 2022

However, this is no trip down Archaeological Lane; Cica’s dinosaurs are not intended to be reflective of the great beasts that once called the world their own. Rather they are here to offer a lightness of mood and sense of fun, as demonstrated by their expressions and the tip towards the fantastical among some of them. This sense of fun is further emphasised by the landscape in which the are located; a place in which Fred Flintstone and Barney Rubble may well find familiar were they to walk into it, with its stone-hewn houses and  cobbled-together wagons and caravans of stone and wood.

Some of the latter sit on the ground, others upon stilts and trestles. Quite who built them is open to debate; no sign of early Man here – although the local technology has clearly reached the point where the wheel is understood, as is the concept of the see-saw and that of the bridge (a concept a couple of the local raptors perhaps have yet to grasp, befuddled as they appear to be by the stretch of water which divides them, despite the bridge that sits close by…).

Cica Ghost: Dinosaurs and Coconuts, July 2022

At least one of the mysterious locals has even reached a point of understanding matters of ecology, a small windmill jutting through the roof of one stone house, presumably to supply power, and rudimentary garden spaces have been established to help give a sense of homeliness with some of these dwellings.

But it is the dinosaurs who hold sway here. From small to large (and in some cases I do mean large), they all have characters of their own, given life by a subtle sense of expression that suggests some of the thinking going on behind their eyes. Even the raptor-like dinos look like they’d be more interested in fun over hunting.

Cica Ghost: Dinosaurs and Coconuts, July 2022

Quirky and fun, and with a number of places for people to sit (or carry out handstands!), Dinosaurs and Coconuts is another fun installation from Cica, and the Dinos are available to buy though the little shop within the region.

Oh, and the coconuts? Just keep an eye on the local giant palm trees – and be careful not to stand too close to them!

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2022 RFL Renaissance Festival and Sci-Fi Expo dates and details

via SL Renaissance Festival

The dates and initial details of the Relay for Life 2022 Renaissance Festival and Sci-Fi Expo, both of which take place in Second Life, have each been made available over the course of the last month, as have initial registration details, etc.

Both the Renaissance Festival are focused on raising funds as a part of the Relay for Life Making Strides Against Breast Cancer campaign, and the dates for both events are as follows:

  • Renaissance Festival: Friday September 23th through to Sunday, October 2nd, 2022, inclusive.
  • Sci-Fi Expo: Friday, October 14th through to Sunday, October 23rd, 2022, inclusive.

Renaissance Festival

The Renaissance Festival offers something for everyone interested in the medieval / renaissance period. It will take place across multiple regions – or kingdoms, presenting a wide range of activities, including: shopping, role-play, auctions, tournaments and entertainment.

The theme for this year’s event is The Silk Road, and t following registration opportunities are now open:

  • Special Events Sponsorship – show your support by sponsoring the event via one of these special packages.
  • Merchants – a range of packages with assorted options. All fees are a 100% donation to the American Cancer Society.
  • Role-play packages – designed for  Medieval / Renaissance / Norse & Similar Genre Roleplay Regions & Guilds & Alliances & Groups who wish to have a presences at the SL Renaissance Festival. Packages are prices at LS $2,500 each.
via SL Sci-Fi Expo

Sci-Fi Expo

With the theme of Voyage to the Stars, the 2022 Sci-Fi Expo promises to carry visitors aboard The Nexus, a mobile space station and one of the crowning jewels of the United Earth Council fleet, as it continues its journey of exploring the vast uncharted reaches of interstellar space.

Applications are now open for the following:

  • Exhibitors – with packages ranging from L$1,500 to L$50,000. Please read the FAQ below the package descriptions when applying. Applications available through until October 10th.
  • Events and Perfromers – DJs, singer, dance troupes, and entertainer as invited to apply for a performance slot at the epxo – with applications open through until October 10th.
  • Bloggers – applications are open through until October 1st, and the application page also outlines requirements bloggers are asked to meet.

About Making Strides Against Breast Cancer

Making Strides Against Breast Cancer is the American Cancer Society’s premier event to raise awareness and funds to fight breast cancer. But it’s more than just the name of a walk – it describes the amazing progress we’re making together to defeat this disease. Since 1993, 4 million walkers have raised more than US $280 million through Making Strides. In 2007 alone, nearly 500,000 walkers across the country collected more than US $50 million to help fight breast cancer. Learn more here.

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Kids These Day in Second Life

Lex Machine (Archetype11 Nova): Kids These Days

It’s been over a year since I’ve written about the work of Lex Machine (Archetype11 Nova), perhaps one of the most engaging visual artists within Second Life. Part of the reason for this gap is that I understand Lex has been on something of a hiatus. Even so, his most recent installation opened back towards the beginning of July, and to my shame, I came very close to missing it.

Kids These Days takes as its topic the changing face of childhood; of the truth that even in so-called developed nations, children are all to prematurely being made to “put away childish things”, and deal with the “realities” of life. Before they are old enough to understand who they are, they are being forced to focus on “who they want to be”; before they can really understand if who they want to be reflects who they actually might be, they are being cajoled into confined tracks of thinking and discourse, channelled into taking decisions that are ill-equipped to understand – or which are patently harmful to their core self.

Lex Machine (Archetype11 Nova): Kids These Days

Of course, for many children the world over, this is very much a fact of life; they are from the earliest age forced into marriage and/or to bear children or take up arms on the basis of tribal or ethnic fealty. Day in and day out, they are forced into situations we in the west correctly view as abhorrent. But until now, those of us in developed nations have managed to remain aloof to all of this secure in the belief it couldn’t happen here.

Only it has; as noted, kids these days are subjected to pressure beyond their years. Some of this can be blamed on “the Internet”, and that dark and mysterious world beyond the computer and mobile device screen, and the increasingly role of the toxic and utterly partisan worlds of social media.

Lex Machine (Archetype11 Nova): Kids These Days

But more insidious than this is the fact that in many respects adults and parents are now making the situation worse for; just take, as two example: the matter of gender and the matter in which many on the religious right are determined to suppress any and all acceptance of anything but “male” and “female; and the blatant disregard the majority of adults today have for the environment, thus forcing those for whom we should be stewards in safeguarding the world, to fight for a future world where they can live without fear of climatic or other repercussions.

All of these ideas are explored within Lex’s Kids These Days through a series of individual, but interconnected vignettes. Some of these are – in his trademark and captivating way – on a massive scale, while others are of a more natural avatar-based size – and perhaps as a result, easier to miss.

Lex Machine (Archetype11 Nova): Kids These Days

Some of the latter might bring to mind the innocence the “childhoods past” – the locomotive suggesting playing with toy trains; a blanket set with cushions, parasol and the delights of a panic representing carefree family days out, adventures by car to new worlds to explore; the presence of cars themselves referencing time when teenager years were about engines, racing, personal freedom and escape, and not – as is all to frequently the case today – a focus of political activism or having to “rebel” in order to be recognised. Others offer commentary on the pressures piled on kids today – the demands that they “gain the keys of success” and “unlock their potential”; demand that all too often leave youngster forced to bear of drag weights of expectation they are ill equipped to carry.

The larger vignettes, meanwhile, offer a more immediate focus, speaking as they do to the central theme. Here we find pieces depicting the way technology can carry young minds to concepts and worlds they are ill equipped to handle. Scattered around the landscape stand Crow Demons, symbolising the many predators – criminal, psychological, familial, political, and so on, waiting to prey on young minds and bodies. And, in the midst of them stands a clown-like pied-piper, representing adults the world over touting their pipes of conformity over their young.

It is among these that Lex offers his clearest and most succinct observation about the future of kids across the globe being born into the world of today, a sentiment that should stand as a warning to us all for the way we continue to abuse our offspring.

Lex Machine (Archetype11 Nova): Kids These Days

Kids These Days is rich its visual expression and powerful in the manner in which it presents its subject. It is also – for those like me who are confirmed admirer’s of the artist’s installations and regions builds – a place that offers numerous Easter Eggs to Lex’s past works, some of which where build when he was known by a different name(!).

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An Endless: Birdlings Flat in Second Life

Endless: Birdlings Flat, July 2022 – click any image for full size

It was back to Endless:, the Full private region held by Sombre Nyx for me recently to witness her latest design inspired by a physical world location. For this build she has turned to the southern hemisphere, and a country for which I have a certain fondness; for reasons I’ll not bore you with here.

Birdlings Flat takes its name from a settlement in Canterbury, New Zealand, at the eastern end of Kaitorete Spit and the southern end of Lake Forsyth, where the lake discharges to the sea. It’s a place of rugged natural beauty named for the Birdling family, the first European settlers to farm the area.

Endless: Birdlings Flat, July 2022

In her About Land notes, Sombre describes the setting thus:

Inspired by a small and isolated coastal settlement in the South Island of New Zealand, Birdlings Flat offers wide vistas, unkempt fields, a pebbled coastline strewn with driftwood, a sprinkling of science, and a chance to find stillness.

However, prior to the arrival of William Birdling and his family, the area was called Te Mata Hapuku, with Birdlings Flat nowadays used to specifically in reference to the  pebble beach on the ocean side of Kaitorete Spit, a location well known as a place to find small agates and a variety of other attractive rounded pebbles.

Endless: Birdlings Flat, July 2022

Designated as a rural settlement, the area actually thrived for a time as a centre of farming, even gaining its own branch of the local railway, connecting the area to the nearby town of Lincoln to allow for easier shipment of goods and produce. This line became known as the Little River Line when it was extended to another settlement (called by that name in the 1880s), and while the line was closed in 1962 and the tracks torn up, the route today is known as a public walking and cycling track called the Little River Rail Trail.

Over the years, the area has seen various uses – it is popular for those carrying out coastal studies, and the the waters are known for the presence of significant number so Hector’s dolphins and can be used by southern right whales, while during certain times of the year, fur seals and (occasionally) elephant seals can be found along the pebbled coast.

As well as coastal studies, the area was once used by the University of Canterbury for meteorological studies, the university establishing a weather station there for several years. Birdlings Flat has also been used for launching sub-orbital sounding rockets, using the US-built Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) system. These launches also fall under the prevue of the University of Canterbury, which also established a radar station in the area to monitor rocket flights and the airspace around the launch area.

Endless: Birdlings Flat, July 2022

The latter forms a part of Sombre’s build, which encapsulates the small, rural nature of the location and its tiny community (in 2018, the local population was just 195) whilst also capturing the rugged nature of the landscape and life along this coastal area  simply but perfectly. It’s not a setting one needs to wax lyrical about, because it speaks very eloquently for itself, and exploration and photography within it are both a delight.

However, in order to reach Birdlings Flat, visitors must go via the region’s Landing Point, and this once again presents visitors with the opportunity to visit not one, but two settings within the region. This is because Sombre is once again joined by Jackson Cruyff, who offers people the chance to visit his Forest.

Occupying a sky platform some 2,000m above the ground-level setting of Birdlings Flat, Forest presents a wooded environment somewhat mindful of the North American continent rather than anywhere antipodean; a place left to the wilds and where assorted animals and wildfowl might be found wandering and / or circling over head. It’s a place where people can simply roam and find refuge, and also – for those who look – places to sit and contemplate.

Endless: Birdlings Flat, July 2022

Two easy-on-the eye settings; one offering a rich depth of background on one of the more remote parts of the physical world few of us are likely to have the opportunity to visit.

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